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BIG : The Economic Information Bureau is appointed to collect, store and process data on unreliable debtors. The Ministry of Economy controls the Bureau's activity. There are four business information offices in Poland: \r \n
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  • BIG InfoMonitor
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  • BIG National Debt Register
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  • Register of Debtors ERIF BIG
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  • National Economic Information Bureau (KBIG)
  • \r \n \r \n Information to the Economic Information Bureau may be forwarded by entrepreneurs and if they intend to verify the reliability of their contractor, they should seek information at the four business information offices which maintain separate lists of debtors and are competitors against each other.
BIK : Biuro Informacji Kredytowej SA is an institution that was established to collect and share data on the credit history of bank customers. The credit history at BIK is an instrument used to assess the credibility of the client. \r\nThe basic goal of the Credit Information Bureau is to administer data and make it available for analysis to institutions providing financing. The banks and lending companies are responsible for the reliability of information provided to the Credit Information Bureau. Only the institution providing BIK with information about the customer can correct it if it is out of date. \r\nOver 650 institutions participate in the BIK information exchange system, including over 540 cooperative banks, all SKOKs, 43 commercial banks and over 13,000 branches and bank outlets.
assignor : creditor transferring his/her claim or other right to a third party (assignee) by assignment.
assignment : contract for the transfer of claims (transfer of claims) between the creditor (assignor) and a third party (assignee) purchasing the claim.
assignee : a person to whom the creditor (cedant) assigns a claim or other right by way of assignment.
cheque : a written order to unconditionally pay a certain amount, issued to the bank by the bank account holder. The legal basis for the operation of cheques in Poland is the Cheque Law Act of 1936. \ n \ nThe word 'cheque' comes from the Arabic word 'szakk' meaning deferred payment.
debt : the debtor's unpaid benefit due to the creditor.
debtor : a natural person, a legal person or an organizational unit without a legal personality, obliged to perform a benefit to the creditor on the basis of the legal relationship between them.
a debt collecting company : a company dealing with debt recovery. The types of debt collection are\r\n
  • soft debt recovery, which is a standard debt collection process, but debt collectors are more forgiving towards debtors.
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  • hard debt recovery, which only applies to the so-called difficult debtors who have been delaying payment for a long time. \r\n
Indos : declaration of will of the seller of a bill of exchange, cheque or some other types of transferable securities
Internet Debt Exchange : a debt collection tool enabling the sale and purchase of receivables, by issuing a non-binding sale offer by the creditor.
court bailiff : public official (not being a civil servant), operating at the district court, dealing with tasks aimed at resolving civil claims by way of compulsory enforcement.
compensation (offsetting of debts) : one of the civil-code ways of repayment of debt (fulfillment of a cash payment) that can be made by another claim. This way of terminating the liability can be used when both parties are simultaneously debtors and creditors of different titles.
consumer : a natural person who performs a legal act not related directly to his/her business or professional activity (art. 221 of the Civil Code of 23 April 1964, Dz. U. No. 16, pos. 93 with further amendments).
account for companies : type of user account on the Internet Debt Exchange, intended for commercial law companies (Polish company types: Sp. z o.o., Sp. Akcyjna, Sp. Komandytowa, Sp. Komandytowo-Akcyjna, Sp. Jawna, Sp. Partnerska) and Sp. Cywilnej and natural persons doing business.
account for debt collection companies : type of user account on the Internet Debt Exchange, intended for debt collection companies and other companies with power of attorney to place offers on the Internet Debt Exchange on behalf of the creditor.
ordinary account : type of user account on the Internet Debt Exchange, intended for natural persons not conducting business activity or those who have ceased to run a business.
erasable cheque : permission to delete a compulsory mortgage securing tax liabilities
Internet Stock Exchange Offer List : a tool enabling users of the Internet Debt Exchange to plan the verification of offers for the sale of receivables and debts of designated counterparties.
order to pay : court order issued in closed session without the participation of the parties only on the basis of the contents of the statement of claim and documents attached. \r \nThe essence of the order for payment is: \r \n \r \n
  • in the writ-of-payment proceedings - a proposal to resolve the dispute in a manner consistent with the claimant's motion, which in the event of not being appealed within the time limit becomes binding for both parties; \r \n
  • \r \n in the case of proceedings - to shorten the proceedings and strengthen the protection of the plaintiff's interests when the evidence he presents belong to categories of documents specified in the Act, either having strong proof or justifying the public interest in granting the claimant special protection. \r \n
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natural person : every adult person who is not incapacitated.
legal person : State Treasury and organizational units to which special provisions grant legal personality (Art. 33 of the Civil Code of 23 April 1964, Dz. U. No. 16, pos. 93 with further amendments).
deduction of debts : is a quick and convenient way to abolish mutual obligations
complaint : a request for legal protection through a civil trial directed to court.
termination of claims : a legal deadline defined by law, after which the possibility of pursuing legal claims is limited or excluded).
entrepreneur : natural person, legal person or organizational unit that is not a legal person, to whom separate laws grant legal capacity and who performs business activity on his/her own behalf (art. 4 of the Act on the freedom of economic activity of 2 July 2004, Dz. U. No. 173, pos. 1807 with further amendments).
register of debtors : keeping debtors' registers, collecting, storing and sharing information about debtors are dealt with by business information bureaus, operating under the Act of 14 February 2003 on making business information available (Dz. U. from 2003 No. 50, pos. (N= 424).
Pauline complaint : type of action / request for legal protection, the content of which is the demand that the legal act should be considered ineffective in relation to the creditor whose situation has deteriorated as a result of that act.
debt recognition : an action taken by the debtor towards the creditor, indicating the willingness to repay the debt or at least acknowledge the existence of the debt. Performing recognition activities before the termination period leads to its discontinuation.
promissory note : type of registered or named securities, in which the note issuer (issuer) commits unconditionally that another person will pay to the recipient of the promissory note a specific sum (promissing note) or he/she promises to pay the amount of the promissory note (bill of exchange, sole promissory note)
creditor : natural person, legal person or organizational unit without legal personality, empowered on the basis of a commitment to receive a benefit from the debtor.
Liability : an amount due to the creditor, documented, e.g., by invoice, final court order or bill of exchange.
debt collection : action aimed at amicable or judicial recovery of liabilities in money and in kind. Such actions are carried out by court bailiffs and debt collection companies.
maturity of the claim : the date on which the creditor is entitled to claim the performance and the debtor is obliged to meet them
legal capacity : the ability to perform legal acts that result in the acquisition of rights or incuring liabilities.
legal person's capacity : the possibility of being a subject of law in general and of specific subjective rights and duties.